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Berberi*.]                           FLORA INDICA.                                   219
cious character; these glands originate in the thickened bases of the nerves of the
petals, and in the bud almost surrounding the bases of the filaments.
The varieties of B. vulparis show many forms, and every colour of fruit,—black,
white, violet, and red,—as indeed was long ago pointed out by DeCandollej the size
and TJurnber of seeds and colour of the,testa also vary much, as does the length of
the j-tjlo and breadth of Ihe stigma, though to a less extent.
Animus*1 ihe peculiarities of Rwlrr'is the leaf is the most remarkable. It was
originally • \nlaiucd by LinmonH (Proleps. Plant. Ajnocn. Acad. v. p. 330) that the
spines orijfiiLaif in. reduced leaves, and represent three nerves, At first the spines
are simple, and have a small tooth on each side (or two in some alpine forms) to-
wards the base, -which teeth elongate and produce the triple spine. In a seedling
Berberis the petiole of the leaf will always be found to be long, slender, articulate at
the base, and there furnished with two minute stipules, and bearing one articulate
leaflet; the latter is often contracted above the joint into a partial petiole. As the
plant grows older the petiole shortens, and finally becomes obliterated, but in all
cases the leaf will be found to be articulate \\ith the stem. The minute stipules at
the base of the slender petiole of most species is replaced by an expanded auricled
sheath in the pinnate-leaved species.
The uses of the species of Herberts are few and unimportant} the yellow wood
can be used as a,dye, and the fruit of some is acid and eatable; JS. Lycium is consi-
dered by Koyle to be the lycium of Dioscorides, and its extract is found useful in
India in inflammation of the eyes, under the name of Rasot.
Sect. 1. MAHONIA.—Folia imparipinnata.
1. B. Nepalensis (Spr. Syst, ii. 120); foliis pinnatis, petiolo aili-
tfulato ba&i dilatato vaginante utrinque siipula subulata, foliolis 2—12-
jugis spinuloso-dentatis, floribus in racemos erectos simplices v. basi
divisos dispositis.—Wall. Cat. 1480! B. Miccia, Ham. mss. ess Don,
Prod. 205. B. acanthifolia, Wall.! mss. Don, Syst. Gard. i. 118. B.
Ldschenaultii, Wall. Cat. 1479!, Wight et Am. Prod. i. 16; Wight,
Icones, t. 940, SpiclL Neilgh. i. 7. t. 8. B. pmnata, Hoxb. mss. Ma-
honia Nepaiensis, DC. Syst. Veg. ii. »1, Prod. i. 109; Deless. Ic. .Set.
ii. t. 4. Ilex Japonica, Thunb. Jap. 79. quad, Ic. t. 32 (fd. Don).
HAB. la sylvis Himalaya; exterioris temperata?, alt. 6-8000 ped.:
a Bhotan t usque ad Garliwal! vulgatiss.; in montibus Khasia, 4-5000
ped.!; in montibus Nilghiri et Travancor, ait. 5-8000 ped. I—(Fl. Oct.
-Mart.) (i?.t?.)
Frutex S-6-pedaiis (arbor parva in montibus peninsulee, fide Wight). Caulit
ercctus, supcrne paree ramosus, rarais strictis erectis apice foliosis. Folio, patentia,
6 anc. ad 1^-pedalia; foliola 1-6 unc. longa^pvata, lanc^olatn, v. rotundata, recta
v. faloata, interduni basi cpruata, inferiora minora et rotunda'ta, valde cpriacea,
nervis basi ilabcUatim. dispositia; petiolus strictus, rigidus^ ad iuscrtionem folioloruin
articulatus, basi in vaginnm seraiamplexicaulein v. ainplcxicaulcra. dilatatus;. vagina
utrinque stipula subulata aueta; vaginae supcriores lamina ct petiolo orbatsc iu brae-
tew sen squamas gemmarum traneeunt. Bractea 1-2 uuc. longrc, apice dentatce,
intesriores lineai'es membranaccar, Racemi plurimi., erecti, nuiltlliori, 1 unc. ad pe-
dales, glauci T. rubicundi, interdoin. subglanduloso-pubcruli. Kracteote coriacea,
persietentes, oblougse v. late ovatte, in pedunculum decurreutes, obtussc v. acuminatsc.
Ptdicelli erect! T. ascendentes, bracteis irquilocgi v. longiores, \ anc. long!. Floret
ftwi, ^4 uac. longi. Sepata eiteriora par\'A, Petala oblonga, bifida, nervo cen*
trali apic^ foroato \in eremplaribus Sikk imeusiba^V Bacca oblonga T. globose, vio-
lacea? glauca, carnosa, acerba, ^|n&o. lon^a, iu exiynpt Kipalens, elliptica, in exempt.